Postdoc on Visibility Threshold of the Phantom Array Effect in LED lighting

Updated: 3 months ago
Deadline: 30 Sep 2021

We need your expertise to develop a model to predict the visibility of the phantom array or ghosting artifact occurring in LED light sources.


(Post-doctoral) Researcher


Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences

Reference number


Job description

The Department of Industrial Engineering & Innovation Sciences of Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) has a postdoc position in its Human Technology Interaction (HTI) group to work on measuring and modeling the visibility threshold of the phantom array artefact occurring in commonly used LED light sources. The postdoc position is part of the EMPIR-MetTLM Euramet project, and has a duration of 1,5 years, of which 1 year will be executed at the TUe and 0,5 year at the Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment (CSTB) in Grenoble (France).

Project context: the MetTLM consortium

This postdoc position is part of the MetTLM consortium, funded in the EMPIR (European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research) program of Euramet (the European Association of National Metrology Institutes). The consortium exists of 12 academic, governmental and industrial partners, who join forces to develop European guidelines and protocols to evaluate the visibility of temporal light artefacts in new and existing LED light sources. Depending on the driving current to LEDs, three light artefacts may become visible: flicker (for a static light source seen by a static observer), the stroboscopic artefact (for a moving light source or illuminated object seen by a static observer) and the phantom array or ghosting artefact (for a static light source seen by a moving observer). The latter artefact is also often referred to as the bead-string artefact, most easily visible when scanning your eyes across temporally modulated LED-based head- or tail-lights of cars. The visibility threshold of flicker and the stroboscopic effect have already been reported as a metric in literature. For these two artefacts the consortium will focus on designing a protocol towards reliable and reproducible measurement of the metric. For the phantom array effect the consortium still needs to define the metric that predicts its visibility threshold.

Hence, the core objectives of the MetTLm project are:

  • To establish methods for traceable TLM measurement of individual light sources and luminaires with a focus on flicker and stroboscopic effect.
  • To validate the traceable TLM measurement methods through an interlaboratory comparison between metrology institutes and industrial stakeholders.
  • To develop novel methods for measuring TLM of the illuminated environment in extended scenes and for multispectral TLM measurement of light sources.
  • To develop a model for the visibility of the phantom array effect based on perception experiments that measure the visibility threshold for various lighting conditions.
  • To facilitate the take up of methods, technology and measurement infrastructure developed in the project by standard developing organizations and end-users

PostDoc position: Modeling the Visibility Threshold of the Phantom Array Effect in LED lighting

The Human Technology Interaction group of the TU/e and the Lighting group of CSTB are seeking an enthusiastic, ambitious, and preferably experienced young postdoc researcher to work in their team on the execution of the MetTLM work package dealing with modeling the visibility of the phantom array artefact.

Job description

We aim to develop a reliable metric predicting the visibility of the phantom array artefact in well-controlled as well as more real-life LED-based lighting. To this end, you will start with defining the most appropriate experimental set-up based on existing literature. Subsequently, you will conduct subjective experiments measuring the visibility of the phantom array artefact as seen by observers for a large variety of light conditions (including changes in modulation frequency, waveform, duty cycle, modulation depth, size of the light source and light level). By integrating the full data set, you will design a model towards predicting the visibility of the phantom array artefact.

You will conduct this research at two different locations: for one year under the supervision of Prof. Ingrid Heynderickx of TUe and for half a year under the supervision of Dr. Christophe Martinsons at CSTB. At TU/e, you will be a member of the light group in the HTI department and of the Intelligent Lighting Institute. At CSTB, you will join the lighting group of the Acoustics, Vibrations, Lighting and Electromagnetism Division, within the Health and Comfort Department.

Job requirements
  • A PhD degree in visual perception, psychophysics, applied physics, experimental psychology, human-technology interaction, or a related discipline
  • Experience with or affinity for lighting technology and measurement, psychometrics and statistical research methods
  • Expertise with empirical research with humans
    • Advanced statistical and modelling skills
    • A research-oriented attitude 
    • Strong conceptual thinking and planning skills; you are creative and proactive
    • Ability to work in an international and interdisciplinary team and interested in collaborating with industrial partners.
    • Fluent in spoken and written English. Skills in French are not required but may be useful during the 6-month stay in Grenoble.

Conditions of employment

You will receive a contract for 1,5 years at TU/e, of which you will spend 0,5 years at CSTB in France. For this contract the conditions of employment are:

  • A meaningful job in a dynamic and ambitious environment with the possibility to present your work at international workshops and conferences.
  • A full-time employment for 1,5 years.
  • A gross monthly salary and benefits in accordance with the Collective Labor Agreement for Dutch Universities.
  • Additionally, an annual holiday allowance of 8% of the yearly salary, plus a year-end allowance of 8.3% of the annual salary.
  • A broad package of fringe benefits, including an excellent technical infrastructure, moving expenses, and savings schemes.
  • Family-friendly initiatives are in place, such as an international spouse program, and excellent on-campus children day care and sports facilities.

Information and application

About us

Eindhoven University of Technology is a top-ranking Dutch university that combines scientific curiosity with a hands-on attitude. Our spirit of collaboration translates into an open culture and a number 1 position in collaborating with advanced industries. Fundamental knowledge enables us to design solutions for the highly complex problems of today and tomorrow.

The Department of Industrial Engineering & Innovation Sciences consists of two Schools. The mission of both Schools is to conduct excellent scientific research in combination with providing excellent education. The School of Industrial Engineering focuses on the design, execution, support and optimization of operational and innovation processes in high-tech business, firms and institutes. It covers disciplines as innovation science, operations management, information systems and organizational psychology. The School of Innovation Sciences investigates how humans and societies bring about technological change, and how technological innovations change society and human behavior. Related disciplines are psychology, human-computer interaction, philosophy, ethics, social economics and history, all in relation with technology.
At the departmental level both Schools combine their research in cross-disciplinary research themes, addressing grand societal challenges, such as Sustainability, the Value of Big Data, Humans & Technology and Logistics with its Interfaces. The department has more than
110 scientific staff members with about the same amount of PhDs and Postdocs. All permanent staff contributes to teaching in the various BSc and MSc programs of the department, educating around 1300 students each year.

The Human Technology Interaction (HTI) group is part of the school of IS. It concentrates expertise in social sciences – in particular psychology – and engineering, and is concerned with the responsible development, introduction, and use of technology, focusing on its interface to humans, its successful deployment in organizations, and a fundamental understanding of its transformative effects on individuals and society. We highly value collegiality, collaboration and team science and look forward to welcoming you in our midst.

The Intelligent Lighting Institute (ILI) is TU/e’s interdepartmental institute for innovations in lighting. It was established in 2010 and is home to multidisciplinary research around novel intelligent lighting solutions, with a special emphasis on how these new solutions might affect people. In addition, ILI aims at providing scientific evidence for the claims that go with these novel lighting solutions

The Scientific and Technical Center for Building (CSTB) is the French government-owned institute whose mission is to ensure the quality and safety of buildings. It brings together multidisciplinary skills to develop and share essential scientific and technical knowledge covering construction products and buildings, and their integration into neighborhoods and cities. It guides stakeholders in the cycle of innovation from idea to market and supports the transformation of the construction sector in the context of the digital, environmental and energy transitions. The CSTB focuses on five key activities: research and expertise, evaluation, certification, testing and the dissemination of knowledge.

The Health and Comfort department of CSTB focuses on well-being as being central to the challenges of sustainable construction. Whether considering a building or its urban environment, exposures and hazards are numerous. They are related to a number of physiological and environmental factors, such as exposure to physical, chemical and microbiological agents and the perception of thermal, noise, vibration and light fields. The Health and Comfort department conducts research to characterize and predict exposure in buildings and their environments and guides the design and development of solutions to protect people and ensure safe and comfortable environments.

The lighting group at CSTB focuses on the relationships between lighting, human health (blue light hazard, disruption of chronobiological rhythms, etc.), well-being (color quality, discomfort glare, unwanted stroboscopic effects) and the environment (disturbances of fauna and flora).
The group has developed expertise extending from the design and evaluation of innovative luminaires to the prediction of optical exposures and associated effects in indoor and outdoor lighting.

More information

Do you recognize yourself in this profile and would you like to know more? Please contact
prof. Ingrid Heynderickx, i.e.j.heynderickx[at], or +31 40 2474510.

For information concerning the stay at CSTB, please contact dr. Christophe Martinsons,
christophe.martinsons[at], or +33 476 762545

For information about terms of employment, click here or contact HRServices.IEIS[at]

Please visit to find out more about working at TU/e!


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  • Cover letter in which you describe your motivation and qualifications for the position.
  • Curriculum vitae, including a list of your publications and the contact information of
    three references.
  • Brief description of your MSc thesis.
  • Grade list

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